Pedestrian Safety Guide and Countermeasure Selection System

 

Curb extensions extend the sidewalk or curb line out into the parking lane, which reduces the effective street width Photo by Dan Burden


Living Streets Page 7-13 Curb extensions improving the ability of pedestrians and motorists to see each other
Living Streets Page 7-13

 

Living Streets Page 5-7 A combination of curb extensions and a median refuge narrow the roadway, reduce the pedestrian crossing distance, and reduce the time that pedestrians are in the street
Living Streets Page 5-7

 

 

Curb Extensions

Curb extensions—also known as bulb-outs or neckdowns—extend the sidewalk or curb line out into the parking lane, which reduces the effective street width. Curb extensions significantly improve pedestrian crossings by reducing the pedestrian crossing distance, visually and physically narrowing the roadway, improving the ability of pedestrians and motorists to see each other, reducing the time that pedestrians are in the street, and allowing space for the installation of a curb ramp.

Curb extensions placed at an intersection essentially prevent motorists from parking in or too close to a crosswalk and from blocking a curb ramp or crosswalk. Motor vehicles parked too close to corners present a threat to pedestrian safety, since they block sightlines, obscure visibility of pedestrians and other vehicles, and make turning particularly difficult for emergency vehicles and trucks. Motorists are encouraged to travel more slowly at intersections or midblock locations with curb extensions, as the restricted street width sends a visual cue to motorists. Turning speeds at intersections can be reduced with curb extensions (curb radii should be as tight as is practicable). Curb extensions also provide additional space for curb ramps and for level sidewalks where existing space is limited.

Curb extensions are only appropriate where there is an on-street parking lane. Curb extensions must not extend into travel lanes, bicycle lanes, or shoulders (curb extensions should not extend more than 6 feet from the curb). The turning needs of larger vehicles, such as school buses, need to be considered in curb extension design.

Purpose

Wide roadways can create difficult crossing situations for pedestrians. Not only do pedestrians need more time to cross the roadway, but the roadway width encourages motorists to speed or take turns quickly. Curb extensions improve safety because they increase visibility, reduce speed of turning vehicles, encourage pedestrians to cross at designated locations, shorten the crossing distance, and prevent vehicles from parking at corners.

Considerations

• Curb extensions can provide adequate space on narrow sidewalks for curb ramps and landings.
• Curb extensions should only be used where there is a parking lane, and where transit and bicyclists would be traveling outside the curb edge for the length of the street.
• Midblock extensions provide an opportunity to enhance midblock crossings. Care should be taken to ensure that street furniture and landscaping do not block motorists’ views of pedestrians.
• At intersections with significant truck or bus traffic, the curb extensions should be designed to accommodate them. However, it is important to take into consideration that those vehicles should be traveling at low speeds, conducive to tight turns.
• It is not always necessary for a roadway to be designed so that a vehicle can turn from a curb lane to a curb lane. Vehicles can encroach into adjacent lanes safely where volumes are low or speeds are slow. Speeds should be relatively slow in a pedestrian environment.
• Emergency access is often improved through the use of curb extensions if intersections are kept clear of parked cars. Fire engines and other emergency vehicles can climb a curb where they would not be able to move a parked car. At midblock locations, curb extensions can keep fire hydrants clear of parked cars and make them more accessible.
• Curb extensions can create additional space for curb ramps, landscaping, and street furniture that are sensitive to motorist and pedestrian sightlines; this is especially beneficial where sidewalks are otherwise too narrow.
• Ensure that curb extension design facilitates adequate drainage.

Estimated Cost

The cost of a curb extension can range from $2,000 to $20,000 depending on the design and site condition. An average cost is approximately $12,000. Drainage is usually the most significant determinant of cost. Storm water management impacts or transit stops can increase the cost to $20,000 or more. If the curb extension area is large and special pavement and street furnishings and planting are included, costs would also be higher. Costs can go up significantly if something major, such as a utility pole or controller box, is moved. The cost to install a green/vegetated curb extension can vary from $10,000 to $40,000. Retrofitting an existing curb extension by adding vegetation can be relatively inexpensive.

Safety Effects

A summary of studies that have looked at the safety effects of curb extensions can be found here.

Case Studies

Cambridge, MA
Berkeley, CA
Eureka, CA
Fort Plain, NY
Oneonta, NY
Tempe, AZ
Fort Pierce, FL
West Palm Beach, FL
Cambridge, MA
Bellevue, WA
Portland, OR
Arlington County, VA
El Cajon, California
Bethesda, Montgomery County, MD
Portland, OR
Corvallis, OR
Hendersonville, North Carolina
Village of Great Neck Plaza, New York