Pedestrian Safety Guide and Countermeasure Selection System


Advance stop lines and yield markings improve the visibility of pedestrians to motorists and prevent multiple-threat crashes.

Source: Toole Design Group. The advance stop bar is supplemented with the "Stop Here For Pedestrians" signs.
Source: Toole Design Group. - Toole Design Group. Advance yield markings at a midblock crosswalk with a refuge island. - Toole Design Group.



Advance Yield/Stop Lines

Advance yield/stop line include the stop bar or “sharks teeth” yield markings placed 20 to 50 feet in advance of a marked crosswalk to indicate where vehicles are required to stop or yield in compliance with the accompanying “STOP Here for Pedestrians” or “YIELD Here to Pedestrians” (signs R1-6, R1-6a, R1-9, and R1-9a). This countermeasure can greatly reduce the likelihood of a multiple-threat crash at unsignalized midblock crossings. The multiple threat crash occurs at crosswalks on multilane roadways, and this occurs when a driver stops too close to the crosswalk and lets a pedestrian cross, masking visibility of the adjacent travel lane. This situation can result in a high-speed crash, which usually leads to fatalities or very severe injuries8 to allow for better visibility.

This countermeasure discourages drivers from stopping too close to crosswalks and blocking other drivers’ views of pedestrians and pedestrians’ views of vehicles. Pedestrians can see if a vehicle is stopping or not stopping and can take evasive action. Studies have found that advance yield markings at midblock crossings can be particularly useful when combined with signs and beacons, such as the Pedestrian Hybrid Beacon or Rectangular Rapid-Flashing Beacon (RRFB). One study found that use of a "sign alone reduced conflicts between drivers and pedestrians by 67 percent, and with the addition of an advanced stop or yield line, this type of conflict was reduced by 90 percent compared to baseline levels.”2


Advance stop lines and yield markings improve the visibility of pedestrians to motorists and prevent multiple-threat crashes.9


• The decision to use an advance stop or yield line depends on state law. Most states require drivers to yield to pedestrians in a crosswalk; about a dozen states require drivers to stop for pedestrians in a crosswalk.
• Effectiveness depends on motorist compliance with the marked stop/yield line. Motorists might ignore markings/signage if placed too far in advance of the crosswalk.
• Parking should be restricted between the stop or yield line and the crosswalk to allow for better visibility.10

Estimated Cost

The cost of each advance stop/yield signs and lines are approximately $300 and $320 respectively.

Safety Effects

The installation of advance yield or stop markings and signs can reduce pedestrian crashes by 25%. For more information, see NCHRP Research Report 841: Development of Crash Modification Factors for uncontrolled Pedestrian Crossing Treatments.

Case Studies

Las Vegas, Nevada
Halifax, Nova Scotia
Tampa, Florida
San Francisco, California