In cities that have bus, light rail or subway service, making these services bicycle-friendly can greatly expand options for bicyclists, allowing them to commute longer distances while also reducing car traffic to and from commuter stations. For buses, the most frequent option is an exterior rack mounted on the front of the bus that can accommodate two bicycles; however, other options exist, including interior bike racks or simply allowing bicyclists to bring their bike onboard an unequipped bus when conditions are not crowded.
For rail transit, selected cars are generally equipped with interior bike
racks, with the number of racks dependent on demand. During off-peak travel
times and on weekends, bikes may be allowed on all cars. Each transit system
sets its own policies and rules. In most cases, no additional fee is charged
to carry a bike on board.
While somewhat dated, the http://www.BikeMap.com Web
site contains a listing of all locations in the U.S. where bikes are accommodated
on transit, either on intercity rail, intercity bus, local transit, or ferries
(see http://www.bikemap.com/transit/usa.pdf ).
The site also offers a discussion of why bikes should be linked with transit
and offers examples of bikes on transit solutions. In the future, the developer
of the site hopes to offer a searchable database where one can type in a location
and find information on available bike and transit options.1
According to information on the BikeMap.com Web site, the two most active regions of the country for providing bike access to transit are the West Coast states (California, Oregon and Washington), and the Northeast corridor, especially along the Atlantic coast from eastern Virginia to southern Maine. Many cities and local planning authorities have excellent Web sites providing information on available services, maps, hours of operation, fares, etc. A good example is the Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority (VTA) in California (see http://www.vta.org/services/bikes.html).
It should be noted that even if bike access on transit (rail or subway) is not an option, transit can still support bicycling by providing lockers or other secure parking at transit stations, as well as providing safe routes to the transit station from nearby residences and destinations.
A good resource on this topic is the Online TDM [Transportation
Demand Management] Encyclopedia, maintained by the Victoria Transport Policy
Institute (see http://www.vtpi.org/tdm/tdm2.htm).
The chapter on bike/transit integration discusses bikes on transit, bicycle
parking at transit stops, bicycle access to transit stations, bikes on
taxis, and bicycle rentals. It also summarizes available data on how integration
of bikes with transit has promoted transit use and provides information
with respect to costs and benefits. Another resource is the Pedestrian
and Bicycle Information Center (http://www.bicyclinginfo.org/transit/index.htm).
Transit Cooperative Research Program Synthesis 62, Integration of Bicycles
and Transit, is also available online at http://gulliver.trb.org/publications/tcrp/tcrp_syn_62.pdf.